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The word “computer” means “calculator”, i.e. computing device. The fundamental difference between a computer and other computing devices and calculating devices (abacus, slide rules, adding machines) is that a computer allows complex sequences of computational operations to be performed according to a predetermined sequence (instruction) – program. For data storage, intermediate and final results of calculations, the computer contains memory.

Computers can process other than numeric and other types of information. To process various information on a computer, you must have the means to convert the necessary type of information into numerical form and vice versa. Computers are universal means for processing and storing all types of information.

Computer system = Hardware + Software

Hardware is the term for computer system hardware, i.e. the computer itself and the surrounding peripheral equipment.

Software is the term for software and all other non-hardware computer system parts.

Presentation of information in the computer

Number form

A computer can only process information presented in numerical form. All other information for processing on a computer must be converted into a numerical form (digital form).

Character encoding

To process textual information on a computer, usually when entering into a computer, each letter is encoded with a certain number, and when outputting to external devices (screen or print) for human perception by these numbers, corresponding images of letters are constructed. The correspondence between a set of letters and numbers is called a character encoding.

Binary number system

Computers usually operate in binary notation, i.e. all numbers inside the computer are represented as 0 and 1, not 10 digits. All necessary transformations are performed by the program.

Information units

The unit of information in a computer is 1 bit (piece, particle), i.e. one binary digit, which can be 0 or 1.

Computer commands do not work with individual bytes, but with 8 bits at once. 8 consecutive bits (a packet of binary numbers with a length of 8 characters from 00000000 to 11111111) are bytes. Byte is a unit of measurement of information in computer science. In one byte, you can encode the value of one character out of 256 possible (256 = 28 ).

1 character = 8 bits = 1 byte

1 KB (1 kilobyte) = 210 bytes = 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 * 2 bytes = 1024 bytes (approximately 1 thousand bytes – 103 bytes)

1 MB (1 megabyte) = 220 bytes = 1048576 bytes = 1024 kilobytes (approximately 1 million bytes – 106 bytes)

1 GB (1 gigabyte) = 230 bytes = 1073741824 bytes = 1024 megabytes (approximately 1 billion bytes – 109 bytes)

1 TB (1 terabyte) = 240 bytes = 1024 gigabytes (approximately 1012 bytes). A terabyte is sometimes called a ton.

Hexadecimal number system.



Computer science is a complex scientific and technological discipline that studies the most important aspects of the development, design, creation and integration of computer data processing systems, as well as their impact on the life of society. Computer science helps not only to entrust the usual data processing processes to machines, but also to provide the most complex processes of preparing and making optimal decisions and optimizing various production processes.

Computer science also means information technology, i.e. a set of processes for collecting, storing, searching, processing data for obtaining information, as well as converting, distributing and using this information.

Information is the basic concept of cybernetics. Accordingly, economic information is the basic concept of economic cybernetics. Information is all the information, knowledge, messages that help solve a specific task. Every economic phenomenon, object, fact has an infinite variety of properties and features. Information theory formulates the rules for the selection of the necessary data, a certain real need for them for the processing of information by computer technology.

Researchers believe that with respect to each particular message, you must first answer the following questions: who should know this; what (about whom) should know; when should you know? If a positive answer to these questions can be considered useful information. The study of the usefulness of information is called the pragmatic aspect of information theory. The problems of organizing the processing, collection and storage of information have acquired tremendous importance.

Number systems in computers

Binary Decimal System


Physical basis of the computer

Memory points

1 byte – 8 binary digits

1 byte = 8 bits

1 kilobyte (1 K) = 1024 bytes

1 machine word = 2 bytes

32 K = 4096 bytes

Input / Output Devices

Printing device (ADC)
Punch card device
General scheme of the computer


Processor – Memory – Input devices – Diskettes, laser discs

RAM – Output Device Scanner, light pen

DZU Monitor, printer

Any computer consists of a main computing device – a processor, storage devices (they are of two main types: operational and long-term), as well as input and output devices.

Computers are of two types – analog and digital (digital computers) (used in the economy).

Along with mainframe computers, specialized ones are used, designed to automatically perform predetermined operations. Also, computers act as the basis of automated process control systems (APCS).


The algorithm is an order to the performer to perform a sequence of actions aimed at achieving the final result.

The algorithm is the exact prescription of the sequence of actions when solving a problem. The rules of addition or subtraction of numbers, multiplication and division are characteristic algorithms. For clarity, algorithms are often depicted in the form of a flowchart.

When used in a computer, the algorithm does not necessarily define actions only with numbers: these can be logical and other operations. You can create, for example, algorithms for translating text from one language to another. An algorithm written in such a way that a computer can execute it is called a program. Getting the result of calculations by the algorithm is called its convergence. The rate of convergence is a very important characteristic of the quality of the compilation of algorithms: if they converge slowly, then the cost of solving problems increases, and the solution time also matters.

Algorithmic languages ​​(programming languages) are formal languages ​​for writing algorithms. They have an important quality – universality, which means the ability to express with their help any transformation of information that can be written in any other alphabet. Algorithmic language is the theoretical base of programming languages.



Mainly practiced 3 types of consultations. To determine them, it is most convenient to use the definitions from the book by Peter Block “The Ideal Consultant. Guide to the transfer of experience.

The first model is “diagnostic” or expert. The consultant appears in the company when it is necessary to solve a pressing problem, studies it and gives recommendations. He is given freedom of action, most often he becomes part of the management structure. The essence of this model is that the Chief Executive Officer admits that he is not sufficiently competent in one of the issues, puts himself in the hands of a consultant and waits for it to be done. The role of the manager is reduced to evaluating the result. The consultant “diagnoses and prescribes a medicine.”

The second model involves an appeal to the expert as an “extra pair of hands.” It is used in cases where the managers themselves have diagnosed themselves, they know the method of treatment, but they do not have enough time and energy for it. A consultant is needed for practical work. Namely, to perform certain tasks. He receives the task, and the control functions remain with the manager. The consultant is completely dependent on the accuracy of the diagnosis and the choice of means, because in case of failure, as a rule, the blame falls on the contractor.

Finally, there is a third model, involving the cooperation of both parties. In this case, the consultant enters into a certain relationship with the client, and the problem that has arisen is viewed not as a client’s problem, but as a common problem. Both parties are interested in its prompt decision and are looking for it together. This is the method of work of the Delta Consulting group, the least profitable for the consultant in terms of payment and therefore the least common. It requires a lot of time and effort. This is a teaching model, you share your knowledge and turn a student into a teacher.

Why do you need such counseling?

This question has been asked repeatedly, because many managers see a certain weakness in addressing the consultant. If a manager is so good that he managed to climb to the very top of the service ladder, why would he need the advice of a person from outside who was not familiar with the company’s activities?

The answer is simple. It is difficult to lead, and sometimes it is very difficult – and because of this, managers sometimes need help. But to ask for such help from their own subordinates is almost impossible. If the head of the company decided to proceed with the reorganization, help should be sought on the side. One of the leaders of the company А Т & Т once said that asking employees, for example, a telephone company to characterize their own organization, is the same as asking fish to characterize the sea. In order to see what any system is, you need to look at it from the side.

Another difficulty lies in the fact that any employee to whom the manager turns for advice judges the situation from his point of view – the point of view of the subordinate. Therefore, it is best to use the help of a consultant whose experience does not make the manager doubt. The director judges the current state of affairs based on his own experience, while the consultant is usually familiar with the experience of dozens of other companies. In addition, the director is helpful to know that others also have difficulties and troubles. The consultant knows which of the directors should be brought together so that they can exchange views and come to some decision.

Moreover, the presence of a consultant facilitates informed decisions. If the director shares the idea of ​​reorganization with one of the top managers and he sees in it the opportunity to rise through the ranks, he will certainly say: “Great, when do we start?” will be in a very delicate situation. The head of the company is much safer to discuss their plans and intentions with a disinterested person who will keep everything he heard in secret.

It is also important that his own career as a consultant with the affairs of the company is not directly related. He needs only work. He is free – and therefore honest. The CEO does not report to anyone, in fact, even to the board of directors. He can use for this consultant.

For fruitful collaboration, the consultant and the director must trust each other. One of the main questions that worries the head of the company is: “How interested is this consultant in my business going well?” He should not doubt his honesty for a moment. Choosing a reliable consultant is just as important as an auto mechanic who doesn’t give you a bill for thirty parts when only two are faulty. The head of the company has no choice but to find an experienced and trustworthy consultant.

But one should not turn a consultant into a transfer link between a supervisor and subordinates. It is impossible for managers to think that if they told something to a consultant, then the head of the company would automatically find out about it. Let them come to him all by themselves. The manager must receive first-hand information.

In addition, the head should be satisfied with the company consultant. It is unlikely that anyone would want to spend time in the company of a person who does not like him. The consultant judges the quality of his work and by how much he was able to experience a personal interest in the success of the company.

However, there is a new danger. If the relationship becomes too friendly, the consultant, unwittingly trying to be pleasant, can begin to look at the situation through the eyes of the manager. And in this case, if he is always sincere, there is a danger of being out the door.

We can cite a curious example from the practice of consulting. One of the experts advised the head of the company who decided to reorganize it and who was stuck in the transformations, since the subordinates did not see him as a leader. Month after month, the consultant advised him to change leadership, but he still did not dare to dismiss someone. In the end, when he, looking again at the presented figures, said: “I need to think about it, let’s meet in a month,” the consultant replied: “No. We just lose time with you. We meet, talk, and you probably get the impression that things are moving, but this is not true at all. ”

Sometimes it is more honorable to refuse to work than to continue it. If the consultant is unable to influence decision making, it is better for him to leave.

Another leader wanted to appoint three people as his deputies at once, making them equal in rank. The consultant came to the conclusion that in this case it is a crazy idea, since all three cannot stand each other, hold different views and will fight with each other for the opportunity to move up the career ladder. At this work the consultant is over. The head of the company appointed himself three deputies who were engaged only in that they were pacing each other. In the end, the two left the company, and the worst remained. Consultants sometimes get straightforward, but it is necessary to take risks.

The essence of this story is that the head of the company should be ready to listen to impartial things. But some react like this: “You will not get any good from this consultant.” Perhaps, sometimes it may actually seem so, but the sincerity and impartiality of the work of the consultant lies.

What are the activities of a consultant working with the head of the company?

First, he pays a lot of time to direct communication with the manager. A few phone calls and faxing is not enough. Required monthly, pre-prepared meetings.

In addition, the consultant often and for a long time talking with senior and middle managers, figuring out the real situation. He does everything to be useful. Sometimes his efforts are almost invisible. Everything remains as before, but he continues to collect information persistently. Often he is met with distrust and fear, almost with hostility. It may take two or three years before the managers accept him in their environment, because, no matter how the head of the company trusts the consultant, he cannot make his subordinates feel the same to him.

The consultant should keep in mind that the relationship develops differently each time. You can not try to remake people, because it is not in your power. It is impossible to change a person who is over fifty, who has a lot of merit and who has achieved a lot in his life. We need to help him become stronger, but at the same time let him remain himself.

An equally important property of a good consultant is the ability to choose the right client. A consultant is only as good as a client’s affairs. It can not be better, worse – as much as necessary.

Small business management consulting

Portrait of smiling beautiful middle-aged business woman looking at camera, working on laptop computer, sitting on floor and leaning on column in light hall

A specific, but very energetically developing area of ​​management consulting is consulting on the management of small businesses. Attracting consultants to small businesses is a new trend in the business world. Every year it becomes more and more difficult to do business around the world. Hence the need for outside consulting is constantly increasing. Managers of small enterprises who strive to be competitive are increasingly considering the possibility of using consultants along with such representatives of special services as lawyers, accountants, etc. Since the sphere of small business is the most dynamic, actively participating in the organization of small enterprises, consultants are able to play an important role in the economic development of the whole society. For beginners in the field of entrepreneurship, the initial phase is the most difficult, however, only a few consultants concentrate on it. At the same time, training business groups that intend to establish new enterprises could attract many consultants to solve small business problems.

It is known that a small enterprise is usually such an enterprise in which the administrative and operational management is concentrated in the hands of one or a maximum of two people who make the most responsible decisions.

A small business is usually funded primarily from personal and family savings, with very limited use of external financing at the formative stage. The head of the company is almost always in close contact with all his working team. The operation of the enterprise usually occurs in a limited geographic area. These factors, of course, significantly affect the consultative process. The specificity of counseling small businesses is determined by the range of tasks that they face. The main problems of a small business can be divided into general and specific.

General problems include:

Limited funding.
Difficult access to credit resources.
Lack of qualified technical and managerial assistance.
The complexity and instability of existing legislation.
High taxation and others.

The specific problems that consultants pay special attention to if they are discovered include:

The lack of modern information systems as a result of cost savings.
Difficulties in recruiting highly skilled labor as a result of the inability to pay high wages.
Low job security and limited opportunities for career advancement.
The inability to vigorously expand the range of products or services produced, due to the extremely limited possibilities.
The lack of a developed marketing system and many others.

According to the DSP of Yekaterinburg, legal entities of various forms of ownership applied to him for advice on the problems of small enterprises: LLP / LLC – 45%, AO – 14%, ICHP – 11%, IPFL – about 30%. Most were interested in possible sources of capital – 41.7%, the rest – problems of the initial stage of entrepreneurship – 12%, marketing – 10.9%, accounting and auditing – 2.5%, problems of production premises – 5.6%, recruitment – 2 , 7%, problems of exporting products – 4.5%, searching for business partners – 10.1%, other issues – 10.0%.

From the above data it can be seen how wide the range of management issues related to small enterprises is, therefore, the consultant must in this case be largely “universal”. Counseling here is the widest. The consultant is expected to receive real practical solutions for a wide range of specific problems, such as financing, sales, manufacturing, and procurement. Often, counseling is in the nature of informal training for the first manager and others involved in the management of the enterprise. The consultant, as a rule, works in the mode of an acute lack of time, since usually they turn to him only when a crisis is already developing and the manager himself is not able to solve the urgent problems.

Currently, this type of management consulting is just beginning to develop. Many SME managers do not want to seek help from external management consultants for the following reasons:

They believe that only large enterprises are able to afford the large costs of consulting fees.
Managers are very reluctant to acquaint outsiders with specific materials relating to their business.
Inviting consultants for psychological reasons is often considered by the manager as recognition of his own incompetence and helplessness.
Also characterized by the difficulties of attracting a competent consultant with practical experience in their field.



In the European directory – an index of management consultants, 84 types of consulting services are currently distinguished, grouped into 8 main groups:

  1. General management.
    Determination of the effectiveness of the management system.
    Business valuation.
    Innovation Management.
    Definition of competitiveness / market research.
    Diversification or the formation of a new business.
    International management.
    Management evaluation.
    Merger and acquisition.
    Organizational structure and development.
    Project management.
    Quality control.
    Reorganization of engineering services.
    Research and development.
    Strategic planning.
  2. Administration.
    Analysis of the office.
    Placement and relocation of departments.
    Office management.
    Organization and management methods.
    Risk management
    Security guarantees.
    Workplace planning and equipment.
  3. Financial management.
    Accounting systems.
    Estimated capital costs.
    The turnover of the company.
    Cost reduction.
    Insolvency (bankruptcy).
    Increase profits.
    Increase revenue.
    Financial reserves.
  4. Human resource management.
    Professional movement and downsizing.
    Culture corporation.
    Equal opportunity.
    Search frames.
    Selection of personnel.
    Health and safety.
    Promotion programs.
    Internal communications.
    Evaluation of work.
    Labor agreements and employment.
    Management training.
    Workforce planning.
    Functional analysis.
    Psychological assessment.
    Professional development of employees.
  5. Marketing.
    Advertising and sales promotion.
    Corporate image and public relations.
    After-sales customer service.
    Direct marketing.
    International Marketing.
    Market research.
    Marketing strategy.
    Development of new products.
    Retail and dealerships.
    Sales Management.
    Sales training.
    Socio-economic research and forecasting.
  6. Production.
    Use of equipment and its maintenance.
    Industrial engineering.
    Recycling materials.
    Regulation of internal distribution of materials.
    Scheme of work organization in the enterprise.
    Design and product development.
    Production Management.
    Planning and production control.
    Productivity increase.
    Quality control.
    Control over the supply of components and parts.
  7. Information technology.
    CAD / ACS.
    The use of computers in auditing and evaluation.
    Electronic publishing.
    Information retrieval systems.
    Administrative information systems.
    Design and development of systems.
    Selection and installation of systems.
  8. Specialized services.
    Training counseling.
    Electricity Management Consulting.
    Engineering Consulting.
    Ecological consulting.
    Information Consulting.
    Legal consulting.
    Consulting in the management of the distribution of materials and logistics.
    Consulting in the public sector.
    Telecommunications consulting.

Consulting on issues of crisis management of enterprises:

Strategic management

Anti-crisis marketing policy


Management of insolvent enterprises

Risk management

Control and controlling

Company Security

Liquidation of insolvent enterprises.

New consulting services:


Development and implementation of more modern technologies

Socio-Economic Management

Development of new communications

Management Strategy Development

Information support business.

The nature of management consulting services used in the practice of industrialized countries

Management Consulting:

Staff training and retraining services

Legal advice

Recruitment services

Project and investment services

Accounting service

Engineering and reengineering services

Crisis Management Services

Information Support

External financial audit.

Stylish Internet


Homepage – this is your house … virtual, of course. Of course, you can legally notice: “My home! What I want, I turn back! ”However, the main task of your virtual house is to receive guests. And the guests are the same people, therefore the design of the page should be “humane”: comfortable, beautiful and fast, and the content should be useful and / or interesting.

What not to do

You should not use ready-made graphics (ciparts) for your page: all sorts of colorful backgrounds, buttons, arrows … When all this mess flashes and moves, the page turns into a creepy peacock. This is very annoying, and besides, it can slow down the browser. In this regard, the recently appeared project narod.ru, which allows you to use ready-made templates for your sites, is terrible. By themselves, the design options are very personal, but when you see the same thing for the twentieth time, the cursor itself reaches for the window close button (if only because of the feeling that you have already been here).

In general, do not overload your website with graphics: hang up the counters and a bunch of banners (advertising pictures). By the way, the unspecified limit on the “weight” of one page html along with graphics and texts is 60 Kb. Also, do not use frames (display in a single window of several pages html) in cases where they are not justified. Not only do they make it difficult to access individual pages of the site, they can also confuse the surfer with a lot of scroll bars. A place for frames can serve as a chat, because one of the pages with the text should be constantly updated. It is not necessary to hang up a sign “under consction” and settle a bored “man with a shovel” in his house. Surely, he will remain for permanent residence. For such cases it is better to write that the site is constantly updated.

And more recently, cases of hooligan bullying over the browser status bar have become more frequent. Many people push all sorts of information there that could be displayed in normal ways. This is comparable to blindfolding the user, because The status bar is one of the tools to navigate the waters of the Internet. For example, if the line is intact, a person when hovering over a link will know exactly where it will go, and that it will not be deceived by some porn site. Sometimes when loading a new page, up to 20 (!) New windows open, which the user most often does not want to see. For such things in general it is necessary to tear off the ears :). Although the entire network of people for such tricks has already developed immunity – the windows are closed before loading.

No need to clutter up your site with a lot of useless information (text box with time, dollar rate, etc., etc.). For such information, verified information and thematic servers will most likely be used. What should be done the Site, no matter what kind it is, is just a tool for conveying any information to people. This means that the quality and type of this tool largely determine the assimilation of information. As for the home page, it should be easy to navigate, interesting and stylish. For this, it is worthwhile to have at least elementary notions about the compatibility of colors, and not to sculpt “bright yellow in bright turquoise” (sometimes it happens).

If you want to make a photo gallery on your site, then it is reasonable to make an index page with thumbnail images of photographs (separate files) and make links to relevant photos from them. Of course, it is worth optimizing graphics. This requires good knowledge of optimization theory and good tools, which, thank God, is full of. Specifically, it is very difficult to advise, because Many graphics programs have built-in optimization tools. Good are compressors from Uead.

And finally, I can advise to check links on your site more often.

Making Money on Websites


We learned how to create a web-studio from scratch and turn it into a successful IT-company.

The Internet has evolved so rapidly and rapidly over the past few years that even today, the normal operation of an enterprise without it is impossible: it is the easiest and most inexpensive way to tell about yourself, find customers and partners, to the extent that traders can organize selling their products and services exclusively through the website. In addition to commercial organizations, they need their own Internet representation and public people (athletes, politicians, musicians, and so on), public and political organizations, educational institutions, the media and even ordinary people who want to declare themselves to the whole world.

This market is now only at one of the first stages of development, which means that having consolidated on it now, you can get a highly paid job for life.

According to the calculations of a well-known western futurologist from Cisco company Dave Evans, within 10–15 years the number of Internet sites and Internet traffic will grow 100 times. And the full existence of human society without the Internet will be impossible at all – with the help of websites we will work and study and buy food, as well as goods in stores and even communicate. But this is understandable, is it possible to earn money on this without being a programmer?

“Today,” having surveyed more than 10 different web studios, found out quite. This work requires serious and intellectual, and time-consuming, but they are fully justified. The main advantage is that to get started you do not need serious expenses such as renting an office, hiring a large team of employees and buying expensive equipment, and you can earn in a few months after starting work. However, success is possible only with the right organization and proper approach to business – any mistake can lead to rapid ruin.



  1. The minimum cost at the “start”. To create a website, all you need is Internet, a computer and your own head – you do not need to spend money on the office and any equipment.
  2. Demand. The Internet continues to grow rapidly – it is already difficult for enterprises without representation on the Web to work. Meanwhile, 80% of companies need to either create a website from scratch or upgrade an existing one.
  3. Additional work. The maintenance of sites and the provision of “cloud” services can earn more than site building.
  4. Low taxes. In the Tax Code for IT-activity privileges are prescribed – as legal entities (are the main clients of web studios) can pay for such services from the expenditure, but not the revenue part (they do not need to pay about 25% of income taxes, as in the case of FLP that provide any other services), they do not require major discounts from site builders.
  5. Perspectives. A small design studio with the right approach can develop into a large IT company.

  1. Undeveloped market. Customers are often not able to understand the difference between the site for $ 100 and $ 1000 – any novice website builder, dumping, constitutes a serious threat to the business as a whole.
  2. Dependence on performers. If the designer or programmer “went into hard drinking” (as an option – on a spree or just got sick), and even steeper – quit in the middle of the project, the losses immediately exceed the expected earnings.
  3. High intellectual loads. Implementing a project from “A to Z” means understanding the client, creating a competent technical project and bringing it to the designer with the programmer, controlling the project, and educating the client is very difficult, because often up to 10-20 people are involved in the process.
  4. Large salary costs. In the cost price the salary fund is up to 90% – any interruptions in the receipt of money can lead to the collapse of the team.
  5. Difficulty in finding customers. Advertising in the media is too expensive, on the pillars – ineffective, and the Internet is too high competition.

Organizational expenses for 1 year, €

Registration of an individual entrepreneur – 34

Taxes – 2600

Internet – 1200

Literature, documentation – 500

Total: 4334

The cost of a full-fledged business site for 1 year, €

Domains – 100

Hosting – 500

Design – 1000 – 10000

Layout – 2000 – 6000

Programming – 2000 – 4000

Copyright – 1000 – 10000

Testing – 1000 – 1500

Total: 8600 – 34000 €


If standard business plans for traditional activities (for example, trade) begin with business registration, equipment purchase, office rent and other rather costly activities, then in the case of a web-studio organization, the experts we surveyed recommend starting with creating a project team.

HUMAN FACTOR. First, someone must look for clients, communicate with them and lead general project management – this is the role you assume. Secondly, you need a designer who draws the appearance of each element of the site. Thirdly, there should be a web-maker who will turn the designer’s idea into a website template. The fourth member of the team is a programmer who creates the necessary set of site modules for the order.

“In some studios, all these roles are performed by a single talented person with the necessary knowledge,” says Yana Nikitina, director of Real Site Studio. However, according to her, this is a road to nowhere: after 2-3 months of such work, the multi-station gets so tired that it just leaves the business. In addition, it is estimated that he will not be able to do more than 2 full-fledged business websites per month, and if there is a client for 3 or more Internet projects, he will simply frustrate all deadlines and lose clients and reputation. Naturally, for development, he will begin to hire subcontractors for himself, however, if these are untested people, their quality of work may turn out to be so low that rework will take too much time and resources. So it is better to create a team at the first stage.

PREPAID AND CALCULATION. Project business also includes project financing: that is, the client makes an advance payment in the amount of 40-50% of the project cost, and after completion of all phases of work, it is fully calculated. This is perhaps the most slippery moment in the business chain. If for some reason the customer does not want to pay the remaining amount, despite the signed agreements, to sue him for too long and expensive. Most web studios do the following: they make a website on their server, and after receiving the full amount of money, transfer it to the customer’s server.

The second solution to the issue – the price for the production site should be such that the prepayment will be equal to the cost. For example, if your margin on each site is about 30%, the prepayment should be at least 70% of the project cost. However, the new web studios are unlikely to pay money in advance: at the present time, no one believes in the word.


According to the experience of the web studios we surveyed, the majority of clients are legal entities that need a website for a specific purpose – to help in working so that the company makes more money. Accordingly, the studio manager (submission manager) is faced with the task of understanding the needs of the customer at the negotiation stage and proposing a solution. The result of the project and the studio’s earnings depend on how successful this mission is.

The businessman Igor Cherepanov, who has been working in this business for 5 years, tells.

  • Our first customer was the owner of the trading network, who wanted an online store. The budget was relatively small – $ 1.5 thousand. We agreed to meet with the customer. Having got acquainted and having drunk on a cup of coffee, we went deep into conversation about online stores, about their role and opportunities. I managed to convince him that web technologies can give a serious impetus to further development.

Agreed that I will make a model of an ideal online store and we will meet again. The week went on to complete the task. The site’s functionality was significantly expanded and improved: a built-in social network appeared in which customers exchanged impressions about the product and communicated with each other, commissions, advice on product selection and consumer tests, as well as a separate closed section for suppliers related to accounting and transport department . The customer was delighted, I even noticed how his eyes lit up. He enthusiastically adopted a new model, despite the fact that the cost of work has grown to $ 23 thousand. And since then, orders are constantly updating.

This example well shows that the customer agrees to pay big money in the event that he understands – costs are perceived as an investment.


Portal. On its development, you can earn from 20 thousand UAH.

In order to properly sell the services of their team (and their cost), the project administrator must be well aware of the capabilities of his people and the complexity of performing a particular task. To do this, you must immediately create commercial offers (price list) for several types of sites, each of which consists of a well-defined set of modules. Plus prices for the development of standard add-ons. These standard offers are well worth posting on their website for customers. For example, one of the successful Kiev web studios, upon our request, sent such an offer with prices that you can rely on. In large web studios, the price is tied to standard hours (an hour costs from $ 20 to $ 150 depending on the qualifications of a specialist): the amount of time that your IT specialist needs to spend to complete the task. But in this case, the work must meet the standards approved in the web studio.

SITE-BUSINESS CARD. It contains general information about the company, as a rule, this is information about the company, price list, details, and travel plan.

Price – from 3 thousand UAH.

PRODUCT CATALOG. There is a detailed description of the goods / services, certificates, technical and consumer data, expert reviews, feedback form, reviews.

Price – from 6 thousand UAH.

ELECTRONIC STORE. A website with a product catalog through which a customer can order the products he needs. Different payment systems are used: from sending goods by cash on delivery or automatic fax invoice sending to payments using plastic cards.

Price – from 10 thousand UAH.

THEMATIC (PROMO) SITE – a website that provides comprehensive information in the field of the company. For example, it can be a site about a specific brand or product, it contains comprehensive information about the brand, various promotions (contests, quizzes, games). The price for it depends on the number of pictures to be drawn by the designer, and the functionality that this site has.

Approximate cost – from 10 thousand UAH.

THEMATIC PORTAL. A great web resource that provides comprehensive information on a specific topic. Portals additionally contain means of interaction with users and allow them to communicate with each other.

Price – from 20 thousand UAH.


A frequent problem faced by both web-studios and their clients is the content (texts and pictures) with which to fill the site. Meanwhile, this part of the work is one of the most important. The potential visitor, in the overwhelming majority of cases, first comes to the site after a text request in one of the search engines. And she will offer to visit the site on which the keyword query occurs a certain number of times.

Repeatedly, the user visits the site usually in the event that it regularly updates information on the topic of interest. But someone must write these texts! To do this, the web studio should cooperate with freelance writers and copywriters – its services for the client cost, depending on the qualifications and complexity of the text, from $ 3 to 10 / thousand characters, of which 30% goes as a web studio fee.

Of course, you can steal other people’s texts from other sites, but the site, consisting of text copies, is badly “friendly” with search engines, in addition, a client can be sued for copyright infringement.


The most popular and fastest way to make money on websites is to make a bet on a large flow of customers, created at the expense of low prices. For example, on the posts now hang ads ads, offering sites for 500-800 USD. – several pages with a photo gallery and contacts. You can “rivet” several such sites a month by the strength of one or two specialists. Yes, it will be a primitive site, which is later easier to completely remove and make a new one than to refine, but there are many customers who are satisfied with the minimal presence on the Internet. The main problem with such a business model is competition. There are a lot of web designers who follow the path of least resistance on the market and explain to the client how your studio is better than those guys doing the same thing for 20-50 hrn. cheaper difficult. However, by implementing 3-4 small projects, you can get a good experience for serious projects, passing the path of trial and error.


In addition to external sites designed for clients and partners, large companies often order corporate portals, which can also make good money. The peculiarity of such sites – they are associated with e-business email, calendar, organizer and corporate social network.

True, the earnings here most often occur not on the development of the system from scratch, but setting up on one of the existing platforms, for example, Microsoft SharePoint or Bitrix — setting up and adapting the corporate portal system to customer needs costs from 10 to 100 thousand UAH. (depending on the complexity of the task).

In addition, software development companies pay a fee for the sale of licenses for their systems – from 10%. For example, if a corporate license for an average company in which more than 100 people work costs about 100 thousand hryvnias, of which 10 thousand the software manufacturer will give the web studio, which has led the client. Naturally, the studio will bring customers, the greater the discount will receive – up to 50%. For small companies, you can offer a portal and its own design – for 10-15 thousand UAH. – with less functionality.


One of the main tasks of the web studio is to make the site convenient not only for the end user – the visitor, but also for the client – administrator. To do this, it connects to one of the CMS-systems (content management systems, or “engine”), with which to add text and picture to the site should be so simple that even a child can handle this task.

For interest, having phoned 2 dozen web studios, we found out that in most cases they build websites based on one of the free CMS – Joomla, Drupal, WordPress, and so on. And only some studios use their own CMS.

However, the sites on them, firstly, are more expensive (the studio must repel development costs), secondly, own solutions are rarely more convenient. Thirdly, websites on free CMS are easy to configure, remake and develop. Most sites are now written in PHP using Java scripts.


60% of earnings go to wages

Representatives of absolutely all web studios surveyed by us say that the demand for their services is now stable – the standard monthly load on a team of 4 people is 3-4 business sites, each of which costs about 15-20 thousand. Directly to the performers (designer , typesetter and programmer) in this case, you need to give 60-65% of earnings – 30-40 thousand. If you manage each project independently (communicate with the client, issue bills, monitor the progress of work and their quality, fill with primary content), minus taxes and spending on in ernet, earnings will be about 15-25 thousand -. taking into account the fact that each of the participants in the project home runs (pros prefer to work remotely). But if you need to bring in another 1-2 specialists (a photographer, a copywriter), we still take about 5-7 thousand more. Still, not bad: you will not earn $ 1.5-2.5 thousand a month at the market.

 Yuri Sivitsky, board member of the international IT consortium Intecracy Group:

Practice shows that in 1-2 years the “site-building” business comes to a standstill – entrepreneurs do not have enough human resources to work with large projects, and there is no money (with which to risk) to hire a large number of specialists. In this case, I advise you to attract an investor – today, many Ukrainian and Western companies want to invest in an IT business that is developing.

But the investor needs to offer a clear business plan – then he will gladly enter into a share, which will expand the capabilities of the studio. This will provide an opportunity to try their hand at serious tenders, where they consider proposals only from large companies.

The second development option is cooperation with large IT companies. Often they need contractors to work on international Internet projects: they can earn 4-5 times more than on regular websites.

Business plan of the company web technology


     1.1 Business idea

The business idea of ​​this project is the organization of an enterprise in the field of web technology to provide quality services to small businesses, aspiring entrepreneurs, and individuals (the production of corporate web resources, business cards, hosting services, domain registration, promotion and advertising on the Internet, business planning on the Internet, analysis of online business, web-based business consulting). Also, the company will be engaged in its own business activities on the Internet (revenues from advertising space on its own web resources, affiliate programs).

The company is scheduled to register in legal form an entrepreneur – an individual (FIE) in July 2007. To organize activities, the author of a business idea plans to rent premises for the provision of services, purchase equipment necessary to provide this type of services and make the necessary investments in web technologies (Internet resources).

This will allow to organize a new venture to provide services in the field of web technologies that are in demand in the market. In Estonia, and in Europe as a whole, there are all conditions for the provision of this type of service, and there is a growing demand for these services every year.

     1.2 Overview of the entrepreneur (planned enterprise)

The author of the business idea has an economic education in the specialty “Entrepreneurship” (“Ettevõtlus” Narva Kaubanduskool, 1998-2000), certificate from the Narva Business Center (Course “Ideest projektini”, 2002), certificate of courses “Klienditeenindaja” (KEA Erakool, 2001) . (CV application)

He worked as a sales representative at Interframe (advertising for business clients on the Internet and by phone, advertising production services for enterprises). Experience – 2 years.

The author of a business idea independently mastered the profession of a webmaster (creating dynamic web resources of medium complexity, travel, news sites, promotion on the Internet).

Author’s own portal and related online resources:


Planned address and location of the enterprise

Legal address:


As an office at the initial stage, it is planned to use a room in an apartment equipped with a computer, office equipment, a telephone and the Internet. The office space is 12 square meters.


Legal entities and individuals (firms, organizations, start-up entrepreneurs).

Partner commercials (Google, Yahoo, other large companies).

20% of clients are located in Estonia, 80% abroad (export of services).


Production of web resources (portals, online stores, websites, business cards).

Hosting services (placement of sites on the Internet).

Domain registration.

Services promotion and advertising on the Internet.

Creation and active development of their own resources on the Internet (portals) as advertising sites, bringing a steady growing income.

View of the company

Many different options for services.

Versatile and skillful service.

Individual approach to the wishes of customers.

High quality services at an average price level.

Way of action

Flexible working hours (the possibility of orders 7 days a week).

Active communication with customers, the study of their demand.

Ease orders and service.

Flexible pricing system.

The possibility of discounts for regular customers.

Informing customers about new services and technologies.

Free after-sales advice. Technical support throughout the year.

Various methods of payment for services (cash, bank transfer, electronic payment systems).

Sophisticated marketing system.

Affiliate program to attract partners.

     1.3 Market

In the market of web services and web design, clients are legal entities and private individuals, start-up entrepreneurs, and advertiser partners. They buy these services in order to develop their business, promote their products and services, attract new customers.

Currently, in the field of web services and web design, there is a trend of steady, stable growth, both in Estonia and in Europe as a whole.

There are many market niches on which small entrepreneurs successfully operate. Improving the quality of Internet services and their availability also contributes to the growth of this field of activity.

As the market for Internet services grows, so does the cost of advertising on the Internet. The volume of the online advertising market in Europe in 2005 was 7.4 billion euros, a growth of 29% per year.

     1.4 Financing requirements

The financing scheme and planned sources are presented in table №1.

Table №1


Total cost, ЕЕК

Sources of financing

Own funds, ЕЕК

Starting help, ЕЕК


Purchase of equipment




Starting working capital






100 %


60 %


40 %

The total cost of the project will be 50,000 EEK.

The entrepreneur plans to invest 3000 EEK from his own funds or 60% of the total amount of financing. In addition, the entrepreneur contributes a computer with programs and developments to the business as a non-monetary contribution and its resources on the Internet for a total value of 50,000 EEK (Estimated at market value). Thus, self-financing, including non-cash contribution, will be 80,000 EEK or 80% of the total project cost.

For the acquisition of the remaining funds, the entrepreneur plans to apply to the Employment Department with a petition for receiving starting assistance in the amount of 20,000 EEK.

The need for working capital is planned to be financed at the expense of the entrepreneur’s own funds (30,000 EEK) and sales revenues.

     1.5 Tactical and strategic objectives

Tactical targets are:

1) Finding a source of funding for the project in the amount of 20,000 EEK.

2) Registration of the company.

3) Purchase of equipment, software, installation and adjustment of their work.

4) Conclusion of contracts with suppliers and customers.

5) Opening of the enterprise.

Strategic goals are:

1) Organization and creation of a stable enterprise.

2) Achievement of the net sales of services in the amount of EEK 100,000 per year in 2007–2008.

3) Making a profit of 20,000 EEK for the period 2007-2008.

4) Creation of another workplace in 2008

     1.6 Estimated Results

For the first year of operation (July 2007 – July 2008) it is planned to achieve the following results:

1) The net sales of services – 100,000 crowns.

2) Profit – 20,000 crowns.

3) Investments in business – 23000 EEK.

4) 1 new job will be created with an average salary of 6,000 EEK per month in July 2007 with a subsequent increase to 2 jobs with an average salary of 5,000 EEK per month by the end of 2007. For the first year of activity, a salary of 41,000 EEK will be paid.

5) A new venture will be created in the field of web services and web design, providing services in demand on the market.

As taxes, the company will pay 3960 EEK on social tax from an individual in the first year of activity and 86460 EEK on social tax and income tax from an individual from 2007 to 2010.

Informational portal


1. Profile of an average enterprise

There are dozens of different information portals in Estonia (they are also called: portal, website, online store, communication center, Internet environment, Internet page), the main purpose of which is to offer information to portal users and sell advertisements and / or their products / services . As for the number of portals, there are no such statistics, however, for example, according to www.neti.ee, there are 16 car portals in Estonia.

Information portals can be divided into several categories, based on the various commercial logic of portals, the topic and purpose under consideration.

Portals on various topics (for example: portals for gardening, real estate, religion).
The objectives of the portal owners may differ:

a) Portals operated by the state, and the purpose of which is to disseminate information (for example: www.riik.ee).

b) portals that aim to make the owner profit (for example: www.auto24.ee).

The content building of the information portal and commercial logic can differ:

a) Users complete the information portal (add information important to other users) every day in their free time and for free. Money comes mainly from the sale of advertising (eg: www.rate.ee)

b) Users replenish the information portal themselves (they add information that is important to other users) every day in their free time, but they pay the portal owner for this. The money comes from the sale of advertising and from user payments (for example: www.auto24.ee).

c) The owners / employees of the portal mainly update / supplement the content of the information portal (news, articles, information). The money comes mainly from the sale of advertising. For example: www.epl.ee

d) The owners / employees of the portal mainly update / supplement the content of the information portal (news, articles, products / services). The money comes mainly from the sale of its products / services. For example: www.rmp.ee

The success of information portals can usually be measured in two ways:

How popular is the information portal among its users / readers;
How much advertising an information portal can sell.

According to the data for 2006, the Emor market research companies are www.neti.ee with 600,000, www.delfi.ee with 400,000, www.rate.ee with 330,000 and www.hot.ee with 250,000 visitors per week.

In the context of Estonia, the websites of state daily newspapers can be considered large information portals, all of them have over a hundred thousand visitors per week. The most visited are www.postimees.ee, quite a bit inferior to it www.sloleht.ee and in third place is www.epl.ee. Portals www.auto24.ee and www.ilm.ee also collect up to one hundred thousand visitors per week.

In the context of Estonia, medium-sized information portals can be considered sites that are visited by about 20,000–80,000 people per week (eg: www.cv.ee, www.u-pop.ee, www.osta.ee). Sites with less than 20,000 visitors per week can be called small portals.

The owners of medium and small portals are mainly limited partnerships, in some cases, joint-stock companies. Some beginner portals are owned by individuals. For owners of small portals, this is either one “project” among many, or a hobby. The main activities of the owners of large and popular information portals are not always the above sites.

Amount of workers

The number of employees in information portals is relatively small. In small portals, the owner of the company works with 1-2 employees. Quite often, work on the development of an information portal is carried out in their spare time and part-time work.

The average information portals employ an average of 3-6 people. The number of employees depends on the technical construction of the portal, commercial logic and the order of development.

Turnover and sales coverage

The monthly turnover of well-functioning large information portals is up to 300,000-500,000 crowns. The monthly turnover of informational portals of average size is usually in the range of 50,000–100,000 kroons, the turnover of small informational portals is 5,000–25,000 kroons per month.

Coverage of sales of information portals depends on the size of the portal and the business concept. If the costs associated with employees are not included in direct costs, then the average sales coverage (turnover minus costs associated with the occurrence of turnover — electricity, virtual server, domain fee, software rental) is 60-80%. If the information portal sells products (online store), then sales coverage is 5-20%.

Cost structure

Direct costs are electricity, Internet, and data acquisition costs. In addition, the entrepreneur must take into account the various costs associated with the activity: server rental, domain fees, labor costs (maintenance and updating of the information portal, advertising sales), office rent, accountant services, software rental and advertising costs

2. Estimated commissioning costs.

The costs associated with the commissioning of an information portal largely depend on the goals of the entrepreneur, skills and business concepts. The following is a realistic need for start-up capital based on various scenarios. The size of the investment does not include turnover tax, and price levels are estimated based on the position of entrepreneurs in this area.

In principle, there are three different scenarios:

a) The entrepreneur has the necessary skills in the field of information technology and aims to create an information portal, spending as little money as possible. During the first months, the investment will be up to 30,000 kroons, and they will be distributed as follows:

· Software: write it yourself, ask a friend, or find free software on the Internet.

· Information [1]: will write itself or partially acquire as a service (investment: up to 25 000 kroons).

· Internet: Uses an existing Internet connection at home / at work or with a friend.

· Server: uses its own server or a server of a friend, or rents space in a virtual server (investment: 300 CZK per month).

· Office: not needed or using the premises at home / at work / from a friend.

· Bookkeeping: deals with itself or buys services (investment: 500 CZK per month).

b) The entrepreneur possesses the necessary skills in the field of information technology and aims to create a good information portal, spending reasonable means. The volume of investments in the first months will be up to 170,000 kroons and they will be distributed as follows:

· Software: buys a basic solution and somewhat complements it with the help of professionals / friends (investment: basic solution up to 50,000 kroons, where development costs are added up to 10,000 kroons).

· Information: writes together with the team and buys as a service (investment: up to 100,000 kroons).

· Internet: buys with the virtual server service.

· Server: rents space in a virtual server (investment: up to 2,000 kroons per month).

· Office: uses the premises at home / at work / from a friend, rents if necessary (investment: up to 2 500 EEK per month)

· Accounting: engages itself or buys services (investment: 500 CZK per month)

c) The entrepreneur does not have the necessary skills in the field of information technology, but aims to create a very good information portal that would make a profit as soon as possible after launch. The volume of investments in the first months will amount to 1 400 000 kroons and they will be distributed as follows:

· Software: buys a complete solution from professionals (investment: up to 1,000,000 crowns).

· Information: buys as a service or hires workers for the main place of work (investment: up to 250,000 kroons).

· Internet: buys with the virtual server service.

· Server: rents space in a virtual server (investment: up to 10,000 CZK per month) or purchases the server itself (investment: 100,000 CZK).

· Office: rents premises (investment: EEK 5000 per month).

· Bookkeeping: buys services (investment: EEK 5,000 per month).

Recruitment and training

Finding suitable employees may not be easy, because in the field of information technology, the salary level of employees is noticeably higher than the average for Estonia, and there are not enough skilled workers. Owners of new information portals often have the necessary knowledge themselves, and in the course of their work pass them on to their employees. In small firms, formal training of employees is usually not conducted; studies take place in the course of work. Many employees are friends and acquaintances.


Many small portals advertise very little. The main advertising channel is the Internet, where, for example, two different information portals advertise each other (affiliate transaction). The advantage of this method is low cost, and the problem is low efficiency and too small a target group. It is often hoped that the information portal advertises itself. There is a rule that small information portals want to conclude partnership deals with larger and more popular information portals. Affiliate deals are also used by large portals, but in this case they agree on the specific price of advertising, based on how many times the advertisement is displayed on the screen and how many times the users click on it with the mouse. During the partnership deals are provided and great benefits, reaching 50% of the regular price.

Small information portals that could not prove their business concept should one day make themselves advertising in other media besides the Internet. The main goal is to inform the general public about the portal in order to thereby gain new users and sell more advertising themselves. Depending on the specialization of the information portal, both national daily newspapers, radio and print media are used. For costing, it is desirable to examine the price of advertising in various media channels and find the most effective of them. The average minimum budget per month is about 15,000 kroons.

3. Supporting Organizations

There are no supporting organizations.

4. Requirements, permits for activities, licenses, health protection arising from legislation

To open an information portal in the name of the company’s business association, a domain must be registered. If you wish to use a domain with the ending “.ee”, then the application must be submitted to the Estonian Education and Science Data Network at www.eenet.ee. Each business association can register one .ee domain and this should not be a name that violates public interests or a name that has national significance. Additional information is available on the website.

If an entrepreneur wishes to register a domain with international endings (com, eu, fi, etc.), this must be done through any web hosting company (for example, www.zone.ee). If an entrepreneur wants to create a portal of pornographic content, then you should first consult with the web hosting company regarding possible restrictions and rules.

Under the Law on Trading Activities, an entrepreneur selling services must register with the Register of Economic Activities.

5. The most suitable form of entrepreneurship

Small information portals operate mainly as limited partnerships (85%). Some owners of information portals are private entrepreneurs, non-profit associations or individuals. Owners of large and popular information portals often act as joint-stock companies.

6. Insurance activities

As for the information portal, it is important to create a security system that would always ensure the availability of a backup option.

The information portal should be secure for its users, confidentiality of data should be guaranteed.
The information portal as a whole must be protected from hacker attacks.
Users and customers should always be provided with access to the information portal.
The information portal server must be protected from physical damage.
Electrical and Internet connections should have spare options.
Backup copies should be taken daily from the data of the information portal.

Activities can be significantly insured by buying / renting the appropriate software. If you use the services of a solid web hosting company, then this should be the insurance against most of the above risks. Obviously, this will entail certain additional costs.

You can weigh and the possibility of insuring physical property, if the entrepreneur uses his personal servers and computers.

Proposal for the creation of b2b portal


Main questions

the main objective

The main goal of the development of the b2b Portal is to provide opportunities for various organizations or just individuals for a certain entry fee to do business through a specially designed WEB site. The basic principles for obtaining this contribution will be described below.

Usually the main work is performed during the development of the WEB site and the initial period (mainly for promotional purposes). In this case, the owner of b2b Portal will simply hire a special administrator for the site and database support.

In the world there are many implemented B2B Portals that are currently running. Most are focused on a specific business area. Also, these portals do not have internationalization, so it is not easy for non-English-speaking people to take part in the work of such systems. They are not as flexible as they should be. The audience of these portals consists mainly of information technology professionals, so you can have some IT-oriented projects or hire them to develop. Examples of such portals include www.ants.com, www.elance.com, www.bullhorn.com.

Other categories

WEB sites in this business are focused on various types of end users. They have a number of different topics (business categories) in which end users can participate, and they are flexible enough to add new categories or change existing ones. Such sites are designed for a large number of users and transactions, as end users represent organizations of small or medium size that can engage in various types of business, and many potential users can be in almost every country in the world. An example of such a portal is www.onvia.com.

Apparently, it makes sense to develop and sell b2b portals of the second category, since the b2b portal market is not sufficiently saturated in many countries of Europe, Asia, and North and South America.

Benefits for the Company

Here are some key benefits for the company.

First of all, it is profit. We will receive cash receipts from first-level users for licensing, installation and support of the B2B Portal.

You can also run an already licensed portal on our server, and we will receive cash proceeds from the hosting.

Advertising is also very important. As mentioned above, the B2B Portal is focused on a large number of end users who often perform transactions (as their business is small or medium-sized). Thus, they will often return to the WEB site and view it to search for new lots or offers. We can develop a special Banner Management System (SMS), representing this to end users with banners, and receive cash receipts from some other clients for displaying these banners. And, of course, we can show our advertising to promote our own products on the market or, for example, describe our services.

Advantages of the company’s customers

It is assumed that we do not work with end users, but we have a certain number of customers who have a B2B portal license and who will work with end users on their own behalf.

Such clients (mainly organizations) will receive cash receipts from all end users working with the b2b portal. It is possible to produce internationalized versions of such a WEB site, which will be an additional advantage for customers who know only their native language. And our client will also profit from advertising, as it will participate in the SMS.

Moreover, the client will not need to worry about server support, as we will take it upon ourselves. We are able to carry out support operations, and we can also provide the services of a special administrator. The client will only need to make the service well-known in his home country.

End User Benefits

The end users of the b2b portal receive a large number of benefits.

The first and main advantage is that such a user does not need to look for work in another way, but simply contact the portal and view a list of available offers or add new ones. He will get a convenient interface in his native language for reading and writing information. He will be able to receive information filtered by regions, which is one of the most useful features of the site. The user can accurately explain what he needs with the help of specially designed questions. He can manage his activity using email. And, of course, the user will be able to receive help from the developers of the portal.

Analysis of billing scheme to end users

One of the main options that will be discussed and approved by the marketing department is the billing scheme for end users, which will be used in the b2b portal. We will determine how the end user will be billed and how he will pay.

There are already some solutions to this issue. It is possible that the invoice will be issued as a percentage of completed transactions.

For example, we will invoice $ 50 if the amount of the transaction was $ 100.

We may bill for the time you use the service. For example, we (or our client) can invoice at $ 29 for 1 month of using the service.

You can also sell to the end user the number of lots and offers that he can create for a certain period of time (a kind of prepaid service). Thus, we can invoice him in the amount of $ (5 * 9 + 3 * 10) for creating 5 lots and 3 bids within a month.

It is assumed that we (or our clients) will have a sufficiently large number of end users (of course, if the service will be popular).

The first methods will require many attempts to find out whether the transaction was really made and how much money was paid. You will also need to create a special mechanism for moving money from the end user to another through our client or us. Also, the end user can often try to hide the fact of the transaction.

The second method is suitable for us (except for the fact that we will receive less money), but it does not fully suit the end user. Some end users will often not need our service, and thus, sometimes they will be billed for a period of time during which they did not enter into transactions.

And the latter method seems to be the most suitable for us and end users, since it involves prepayment for creating lots and offers and has no time limit (of course, we can add some restrictions to encourage users).

The last method is currently implemented, but the marketing department must approve (and, possibly, change) this fact.

Feature Overview

End-user functionality

The main result of this section is an algorithm that determines how the end user will use the portal. First of all, the user needs to register in order to access the main properties of the portal.

Then, if he wants to create a lot (actually buy the service), he must select the appropriate business category (KB) and fill in the form with the answers to the list of questions (form “Create a lot”). After that, the lot will be sent to all suitable users who are interested in providing this service. The user will be able to monitor the activity of the providers of this service through the Inbox. In it, you can choose a particular offer and reject the rest. In this case, the transaction will be concluded without the participation of the owner of the b2b portal.

To view new or existing lots that correspond to user data (region and type of business), you just need to view your Inbox, but use another page. It is possible to send an offer to an existing lot or send some promotional offers for all users.

To send a regular offer, the user must fill out a STANDARD (the same form for all types of business categories) and send it. To send a promotional offer, the user must fill out and submit a dynamically generated form, very similar to the Create Lot form.

All users can set email options to receive messages.

User registration

First of all, a new user must register in order to access the portal functionality. However, he did browse the list of categories without registration actions. During registration, the user needs to fill in a number of empty text fields and lists, as well as combined elements with data. Among them there are fields with very important information that must be filled. This is a REGION and a TYPE of BUSINESS. The system automatically manipulates all the lots from the corresponding region or from the user with the corresponding business type and places them in the Inbox. But the user, of course, can view the lots and offers from other regions.

You can split the registration process into steps and navigate through them using the wizard, but you can also use one page.

Security questions

It is possible to view the general pages of the site without performing registration operations or logging into the system. But the user must log in (or create a new account) to start working with the inbox or create lots and offers. Since the portal is likely to use some kind of credit card processing mechanism, it is necessary to protect the information with other methods (for example, SSL).

Business Categories

When creating a lot, the user will need to select the KB, to which his lot should correspond.

One of the main elements of the portal will be the Business Categories Tree (CST). This tree will probably exist on the very first page or will be accessible from the top-level menu. At the moment it seems sufficient to have 2 levels in the tree.

You can also click on the category of the highest level to view its contents. And, of course, the search mechanism will be implemented. It will be possible to search by business category name and by keywords related to one or another category.


The user has the opportunity to work with his inbox and manage his own lots and offers, respond to lots of other users or send offers. There will be two pages in the folder – “Buyer” and “Seller”, because when you send a lot, you want to purchase a service or product, and when you send an offer, you want to sell them. This can be changed in the case of the development of the auction portal (in this case, these pages will change their names to the opposite).

You can get a lot of information on how to work with your Inbox regarding lots and offers. The “Buyer” page will contain the user’s own lots and offers of other users for these lots, and the “Seller” page will contain the user’s own offers for lots of other users. All elements (lots and offers) will correspond to the information about the user, since it is possible to get detailed information (for example, rating).

Typically, REGION and BUSINESS TYPE are filters for information in the Inbox, but you can change these filters to search for lots or promotional offers with some other REGION and BUSINESS TYPE value.

Lot creation

Each user can create and send a lot by selecting the appropriate KB and entering the answers to the questions.

This lot is actually a list of answers to questions related to the selected KB. Each KB has a combination of common questions with different types of answers (text, combo, list, etc.).

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Computer device

The word "computer" means "calculator", i.e. computing device. The fundamental difference between a computer and other computing devices and calculating devices (abacus,...


Computer science is a complex scientific and technological discipline that studies the most important aspects of the development, design, creation and integration...


Mainly practiced 3 types of consultations. To determine them, it is most convenient to use the definitions from the book by Peter...

Small business management consulting

A specific, but very energetically developing area of ​​management consulting is consulting on the management of small businesses. Attracting consultants to small...


In the European directory - an index of management consultants, 84 types of consulting services are currently distinguished, grouped into 8 main...