Informatics

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Computer science is a complex scientific and technological discipline that studies the most important aspects of the development, design, creation and integration of computer data processing systems, as well as their impact on the life of society. Computer science helps not only to entrust the usual data processing processes to machines, but also to provide the most complex processes of preparing and making optimal decisions and optimizing various production processes.

Computer science also means information technology, i.e. a set of processes for collecting, storing, searching, processing data for obtaining information, as well as converting, distributing and using this information.

Information is the basic concept of cybernetics. Accordingly, economic information is the basic concept of economic cybernetics. Information is all the information, knowledge, messages that help solve a specific task. Every economic phenomenon, object, fact has an infinite variety of properties and features. Information theory formulates the rules for the selection of the necessary data, a certain real need for them for the processing of information by computer technology.

Researchers believe that with respect to each particular message, you must first answer the following questions: who should know this; what (about whom) should know; when should you know? If a positive answer to these questions can be considered useful information. The study of the usefulness of information is called the pragmatic aspect of information theory. The problems of organizing the processing, collection and storage of information have acquired tremendous importance.

Number systems in computers

Binary Decimal System

0123456789101112131415
0000000100100010010001010110011110001001
0123456789ABCDEF

Physical basis of the computer

Memory points

1 byte – 8 binary digits

1 byte = 8 bits

1 kilobyte (1 K) = 1024 bytes

1 machine word = 2 bytes

32 K = 4096 bytes

Input / Output Devices

Keyboard
Display
Printing device (ADC)
Punch card device
General scheme of the computer

Keyboard

Processor – Memory – Input devices – Diskettes, laser discs

RAM – Output Device Scanner, light pen

DZU Monitor, printer

Any computer consists of a main computing device – a processor, storage devices (they are of two main types: operational and long-term), as well as input and output devices.

Computers are of two types – analog and digital (digital computers) (used in the economy).

Along with mainframe computers, specialized ones are used, designed to automatically perform predetermined operations. Also, computers act as the basis of automated process control systems (APCS).

Algorithm

The algorithm is an order to the performer to perform a sequence of actions aimed at achieving the final result.

The algorithm is the exact prescription of the sequence of actions when solving a problem. The rules of addition or subtraction of numbers, multiplication and division are characteristic algorithms. For clarity, algorithms are often depicted in the form of a flowchart.

When used in a computer, the algorithm does not necessarily define actions only with numbers: these can be logical and other operations. You can create, for example, algorithms for translating text from one language to another. An algorithm written in such a way that a computer can execute it is called a program. Getting the result of calculations by the algorithm is called its convergence. The rate of convergence is a very important characteristic of the quality of the compilation of algorithms: if they converge slowly, then the cost of solving problems increases, and the solution time also matters.

Algorithmic languages ​​(programming languages) are formal languages ​​for writing algorithms. They have an important quality – universality, which means the ability to express with their help any transformation of information that can be written in any other alphabet. Algorithmic language is the theoretical base of programming languages.


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